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<\/a>\nYou will find more statistics at Statista<\/a><\/em><\/p>\nSo why are we so at odds when it comes to this one issue? Well, we do agree on one thing\u00a0\u2014 we all reject AIPAC's \"Israel Can Do No Wrong\" perspective.\n\nBut that still leave us with a chasm. On one side there is the Blame Israel (B.I.) group\u00a0\u2014 represented by Jewish Voice for Peace and Code Pink, among others\u00a0\u2014 and on the other side the Blame Both (B.B.) group, represented by Americans for Peace Now and J Street, among others.\n\nLike most categorizations, this one simplifies\u00a0\u2014 the lines are not always entirely clear cut; there are disagreements within each group and people on the fringes of both. Nevertheless the rift is striking. Frustrated by it, I have spent\u00a0 hours visiting websites on both sides, gone back to key books\u00a0\u2014 Noam Chomsky, Benny Morris, etc.\u00a0\u2014 and gleaned key, underlying, opposing assumptions, perspectives, interpretations, and historical understandings from these documents. I have also relied on lectures and conferences I have attended, as well as conversations with friends and acquaintances.\n\nWhat follows is first an outline of some divisive underlying issues, and then links to a few of the books, articles, and blogs which have influenced my understanding of what divides the two groups.\n\nBut before going any further, I want to put my cards on the table\u00a0\u2014 I support Americans for Peace Now and I have written in support of J Street.\n\nThe following represent a few of the underlying issues that divide the two groups:\n\n \n\nTRUSTING HAMAS<\/strong>\n\nGroup B.I.<\/em>\nViews\u00a0Palestinian leaders as trustworthy, does not take seriously charters and past statements by leaders of Hamas and Hezbollah stating the destruction of Israel as their goal, trusts that Hamas leader are sincere when they state that they now are willing to accept the existence of\u00a0Israel. They view these organizations as consisting\u00a0 of freedom fighters for the rights of Palestinians\u00a0\u2014 akin to black South Africans or Algerian Muslims fighting for their freedom\u00a0\u2014 so that once Palestinians get what is due to them, a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza\u00a0or a binational state, there will be no threat to Israel. The present Gaza crisis provides an example of Israel's brutal aggression and indifference to innocent Palestinian lives.\n\nGroup B.B<\/em>\nIs vehemently opposed to the ever-increasing number of settlements in the West Bank, extremely critical of the policies of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, and deeply concerned about the increased strength and power of rightwing parties and groups in Israel.\u00a0They support a two-state solution, but do not dismiss concerns about the security threat that a Palestinian state would represent. They view Hamas and Hezbollah as terrorist organizations, take their covenants vowing the destruction of the state of Israel seriously, and do not trust statements to the contrary by Hamas leaders who refuse to change their covenants. While critical of some of Israel's actions in the 2014 conflict with Gaza, which have led to large number of civilian deaths, they believe that Hamas provoked the conflict by attacking Israel with missiles, and is therefore also responsible for these deaths. They take seriously Israel's contention that Hamas places its military\u00a0targets among civilians so that large number of civilian deaths will be met with worldwide sympathy and support for the Palestinian cause. Hamas tunnels are viewed as a serious threat to Israel's security.\n\n \n\nANTI-SEMITISM<\/strong>\n\nGroup B.I.<\/em>\nFocuses on the grave injustices done to the Palestinians and encourages Christian clergy, college students, academic and other professional groups, unions, celebrities, and others around the world to demonstrate in support of Palestinians in times of crisis, such as the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflagration, and more generally to support the Palestinian-initiated Boycott, Divest, and Sanction movement (BDS). They do not view their actions as encouraging anti-Semitism, and dismiss the concern with it as conflating anti-Israeli utterances and demonstrations with anti-Semitism. Jewish Voice for Peace has expressed regret about the few among demonstrators and activists who have exhibited anti-Semitic behavior. To the best of my knowledge, other groups have not commented.\n\nGroup B.B.<\/em>\nBelieves that this unique focus on Israel and the Palestinians gives the highly misleading and dangerous impression that Israel, among all nations, is guilty of particularly inhumane, violent conduct, when, in fact, far worse actions have been and continue to be taken by governments of other countries, including Syria, Russia, China, and the U.S. They believe that this focus encourages anti-Semitism.\n\n \n\nCREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL; THE NAKBA<\/strong>\n\nGroup B.I.<\/em>\nThe creation of the state of Israel led to what Palestinians refer to as the Nakba\u00a0\u2014 the Catastrophe. Jewish Europeans began to immigrate to Palestine in the late 19th<\/sup> century. By 1947 there were approximately 610,000 Jews living in Palestine and 1.3 million Palestinian Arabs. Between 400,000-500,000 Palestinians and approximately 500,000 Jews were living on land partitioned for the Jewish state. Approximately 10,000 Jews and between 725,000-818,000 Arabs were living on land partitioned for the Arab state.\n\nAs a form of reparation to Jews after the Holocaust, in 1947, the United Nations Assembly Resolution 181 \u2014 supported by the U.S. and the Soviet Union\u00a0\u2014 awarded Jews 52 percent of Palestine, leaving 45 percent to the Arabs. Bethlehem (3 percent) would be under international control. Because of Israel's 1947-48 policy of ethnic cleansing, which involved the destruction of numerous Arab towns and the killing of its inhabitants, only 156,000 Palestinian Arabs remained in Israel and became Israeli citizens, but a far larger number, around 700,000, eventually fled and became refugees. Right from the start, a grave injustice was committed against the Arab population. In 1948, the U.N.'s Resolution 194, proclaimed the right of return of these refugees. Israel failed to abide by the proclamation, so that more than sixty years later, Palestinian refugees continue to be deprived of their homeland. As part of an effort to correct this injustice, this group supports the Palestinian-led call for Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS), with demands that include the rights of Palestinian refugees to return to their homes and properties as stipulated in the UN resolution.\n\nGroup B.B.<\/em>\nStarting in 1947, when the U.N. voted to partition the Palestinian territories, and continuing into 1948, after Israel was proclaimed an independent state, acts of violence were committed against Palestinian Arabs. Israeli violence played a major role in Arabs fleeing from what became Israel. But simultaneously, starting in 1947, Palestinian Arabs committed violence against the Jewish population. The attack on Israel by Palestinian Arab forces and the armies of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria started on May 15, 1948, when the state of Israel came into existence. The Arab military had encouraged Palestinians to leave their homes to facilitate the attack. Refugees were told that they would soon return\u00a0 home after the war against Israel had been won. After ten months of\u00a0 fighting, Israel won the war.\n\nThe 156,000 Palestinians who chose to stay in Israel have grown to approximately 1,690,000 by 2014. The 700,000 Palestinians refugees have grown to 4,950,000, of which approximately 30-50,000 are people who fled in 1948.\n\nWhile some in this group support paying indemnification to the descendants of the refugees, they are opposed to BDS's right of return years after sixty-six years, and to the rest of BDS demands.\n\n \n\nINHUMANE TREATMENT OF WEST BANK AND GAZA PALESTINIANS<\/strong>\n\nGroup B.I.<\/em>\nCondemns home demolitions, ill-treatment of detainees, roadblocks, excessive use of violence against protestors, and other forms of inhumane treatment of\u00a0Palestinians since the 1967 war, and demands an immediate end to the Israeli occupation.\n\nGroup B.B.<\/em>\nCondemns the inhumane treatment of Palestinians\u00a0\u2014 home demolitions, excessive use of violence against protestors etc.\u00a0\u2014 but does not view the Palestinians as innocent. In 1967, when the Palestinians had for nineteen years occupied the West Bank and Gaza, they joined the Egyptians, Syrians, and Jordanians to once again attack Israel with the intent of taking back the part of the Palestinian territory granted to Israel in 1948. Israel won that war, and as a result came to occupy the West Bank and Gaza. So while Israel is at fault for mistreatment and for allowing settlements to be built, which have made it much harder to negotiate a peace settlement and return the West Bank to the Palestinians, the Palestinians are at fault for attacking Israel. This attack led them to lose the territory that they have ever since demanded be returned to them.\n\n \n\nTHE 2000 CAMP DAVID SUMMIT<\/strong>\n\nGroup B.I.<\/em>\nBlames Israel for the failure of the Summit. It views the 2002 Intifada as a reaction to Israel's unwillingness to honestly negotiate a settlement, followed by Ariel Sharon's September 2000 provocative visit to the Temple Mount. The terrorist acts committed against Israeli civilians are abhorrent, but the major focus is on the fact that Palestinian terrorism provided Sharon with the excuse he needed to execute Operation Defensive Shield, in which thousands of Palestinians were arrested and government buildings and the West bank infrastructure was destroyed.\n\nGroup B.B.<\/em>\nSome blame the Palestinians and Arafat for walking out on the Summit. Some conclude that both Barak and Arafat share blame. They deplore the Second Intifada, which left close to 900 Israeli civilians killed and approximately 5,600 injured\u00a0\u2014 most of the casualties due to suicide bombings. Fear of terrorism led to the creation of a wall\u00a0\u2014 which ended up including unnecessary and unjust incursions into Palestinian territory\u00a0\u2014 to protect Israelis from terrorism; and moved a significant percentage of the Israeli population to a much more hawkish position.\n\n \n\nABSOLUTISM VS. RELATIVISM<\/strong>\n\nAs may already be apparent from some of the above distinctions, fundamental differences in perspective between the two groups often grow out of the fact that the B.I. group takes an absolutist position while the B.B. group take a relativistic position. A few examples: While the B.I. group focuses uniquely on the injustice done to the Palestinians by the creation of the state of Israel, and subsequent unjust and violent acts by Israel, the B.B. group agrees that\u00a0 the creation of Israel caused Palestinians to suffer injustice and violence, but points out that Israel should not be singled out as exceptionally evil\u00a0\u2014 In fact, Israel is exceptional in that it is a national state created by an international organization, not by warfare. The case of the U.S. serves as an example: just about fifty years before the creation of Israel, the U.S., with the help of the Marines, deposed Queen Lili'uokalani and took over the country of Hawaii. About fifty years before conquering Hawaii, the U.S. waged the Mexican war which resulted in California, New Mexico, and Texas being part of the U.S.And then there are the Native Americans...\n\nTurning to the present, the B.I. group focuses exclusively on Israel's acts of violence against Palestinians. The B.B. group, while highly critical of excessive violence used by Israelis, views it in the context of\u00a0 other worldwide atrocities. For example, over 150,000 Syrians have been killed by President Bashar Hafez-al-Assad military and by rebel groups. The U.N. estimates that approximately 2.5 million Syrians have fled their country and become refugees.\n\nDiscrimination by Israel against its Arab population of Israel is acknowledged and deeply condemned by the B.B. group. But Arabs are Israeli citizens, are represented in the Israeli government, have access to education; there are no laws prohibiting their employment. On the other hand, 300,000 Palestinians have been living in Lebanon for more than sixty years. Despite some minor improvements in their condition in recent years, Palestinians still cannot become citizens of Lebanon, are barred from practicing a host of professions, may not own property, and are not entitled to state education or healthcare.\n\n \n\nWHAT'S RELEVANT?<\/strong>\n\nBeside the disagreements outlined above, there are differences in what is considered important. B.B. people sometimes point to facts which tend to differentiate Israel from colonial powers and put a more benign face on the country. They are not considered relevant by the B.I. people, and in some cases not completely accurate. They include:\n