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May 29: Full Citizenship for Jews in Austria-Hungary

The Austro-Hungarian Compromise, which created a new alliance between the Kingdom of Hungary and the Austrian Empire, was accepted by the restored Hungarian Diet, or legislature, on this date in 1868. While many in Hungary considered the Compromise a betrayal of the revolution of 1848, in which they had sought full Hungarian independence and democracy, […]

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February 21: Revolution in Bavaria

Kurt Eisner, a socialist journalist who led a revolution that overthrew Bavaria’s monarchy in November, 1918, was assassinated on this date in 1919. Eisner had been jailed for treason the previous year for helping to lead a strike of 6,000 munitions workers. He had been opposed to World War I and had leaked documents showing […]

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July 1: The Galveston Movement

The Galveston Movement, a plan to divert Eastern European Jewish immigrants away from the overcrowded tenements of New York, began on this date in 1907 with the landing of the SS Cassel in Galveston, Texas, with 87 Russian Jews aboard. Over the course of seven years, the effort would bring ten thousand Jews through the […]

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February 20: Victor Berger Convicted

Victor Berger, the first Socialist Party member elected to Congress, was convicted on this date in 1919 of violating the Espionage Act. The law was enacted in 1917, shortly after the U.S. entered World War I, and made outspoken opposition to the war illegal (on the grounds that it undermined military recruitment and encouraged military […]

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April 6: World War I and the Jews

The United States entered World War I on this date in 1917. About a quarter of a million Jews were in the American armed forces during the war, close to 6 percent of the total enlistment, from a Jewish population that was under 4 percent of the general population. Among German and Austrian Jews, over […]

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October 30: The End of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on this date in 1914, on the side of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and surrendered by signing the Armistice of Mudros on this date in 1918. Thirty-nine new countries were eventually created through the dismemberment of the Empire. The British had captured Jerusalem in 1917 and were […]

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